Kampung Naga is a village inhabited by a group of people who are very strong in holding the relics of ancestral customs, in this case is a traditional Sundanese. Like a Bedouin settlement, Kampung Naga became the object of anthropological study of the life of rural communities in the transition from the Sundanese Hindu influence to the influence of Islam in West Java.
Location and topography
This village is administratively located in the area Neglasari, District Salawu, Tasikmalaya District, West Java Province. Location Kampung Naga is not far from main street that connects the Garut town and Tasikamalaya town. This village is located in a fertile valley, with the boundary on the west side of Kampung Naga is limited by the sacred forest in the forest because there are people of Kampung Naga ancestral graves. To the south is limited by the rice fields of the population, and on the north and east bounded by Ci Wulan (Wulan River) is the source of water comes from Mount Cikuray in Garut. Distance from Tasikmalaya to Kampung Naga approximately 30 kilometers, while the distance from Garut city 26 kilometers. To reach Kampung Naga from main street Garut-Tasikmalaya should already down the stairs in the wall (Sundanese: sengked) until the bank Ciwulan with a slope of about 45 degrees with a distance of approximately 500 meters. Then through the path along the river Ciwulan up into Kampung Naga.
According to data from Neglasari, form ground level in the form of Kampung Naga hills with fertile soil productivity can be classified. The land area of Kampung Naga that there is an acre and a half, mostly used for housing, yards, pools, and the rest is used for rice farming is harvested twice a year.
Religious and knowledge systems
Residents of Kampung Naga everything themselves Muslims, but as other indigenous peoples they are also very obedient holds customs and beliefs of his ancestors. That is, even though they claim to Islam, Islamic law that they run a bit different from the other Moslems. For the people of Kampung Naga religion is very obedient in carrying on the legacy of ancestors. Eg five daily prayers: Fajr, Ḑuhūr, Asr, Maghrib, and Isya, only done on Fridays. On other days they do not implement the five daily prayers. Teaching the Koran to children in Kampung Naga held on Monday and Thursday nights, while recitals for parents was held on Friday evening. In performing the fifth pillar of Islam or the Hajj, they assume not have far to go to the Holy Land of Mecca, but enough to run that time Sasih Hajat ceremony coincided with Hari Raya Haji ie every 10th Rayagung (Hijjah). Hajat Sasih ceremony, according to Kampung Naga community trust equal to the Eid al-Adha and Eid.
According to public confidence in Kampung Naga, by running custom heritage means honoring the ancestors or ancestor. Everything that comes not from the teachings of Kampung Naga ancestor, and something that is not done ancestors considered taboo. When these things are done by people of Kampung Naga is a violation of custom, not respecting ancestor, this will inevitably lead to disaster.
Public confidence in the Kampung Naga spirits still held strong. Believe there Jurig cai, ie spirits that occupy the water or river, especially in the part of the river (“Leuwi”). Then “ririwa” happy spirits that disturb or frighten humans at night, some are so-called “Kunti anak” spirits are derived from pregnant women who died, he likes to annoy women who are or will bear. While the places that serve the spirits dwelling Kampung Naga society is referred to as a haunted place or sanget. Similarly, places like tombs Worship Singaparna Grandmother, the Earth ageung and the mosque is considered a sacred place for the people of Kampung Naga.
Taboos, restrictions or taboos for the people of Kampung Naga is still carried out by obedient, especially in everyday life, particularly with regard to the activity of life. Abstinence or taboo is an unwritten law that they uphold and obeyed by everyone. For example, procedures and forms to build the house, the location, the direction of the house, ceremonial clothing, art, and so forth.
Home form Kampung Naga society must stage, the material of bamboo and wood. The roof of the house should be of palm leaf, palm fiber, or reeds, the floor must be made of bamboo or wooden planks. The house should face north or fence to the south by the East-West direction lengthwise. Home of cubicle walls or woven bamboo with Sasag woven. The house should not be painted. Material may not use the house wall, although able to make house walls or buildings (gedong).
The house should not be equipped with furniture, such as chairs, tables, and beds. The house should not have doors in two opposite directions. Because according to public perception Kampung Naga, sustenance taken into the house through the front door will not come out through the back door. To put it in the door, they always avoid installing doors are aligned in a straight line.
In the field of public art Kampung Naga have restrictions or taboos performing arts kind of outside Kampung Naga like a puppet show, dangdut, martial arts, and other art that uses waditra goong. While that is a heritage art Kampung Naga society is Terbangan, angklung, beluk, and Rengkong. Art outs now rarely performed, whereas art is no longer known Rengkong especially by the younger generation. But for the people of Kampung Naga who want to watch the puppet arts, martial arts, and so allowed the arts performed outside of Kampung Naga.
The other restrictions or taboos that are on Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday. Naga village community is forbidden to talk about the customs and origins of Naga villages. Kampung Naga Peoples Worship Singaparna respect grandparent who is the forerunner of Kampung Naga society. Meanwhile, in Tasikmalaya there is a place called Singaparna, Kampung Naga Peoples call Singaparna as Galunggung because Galunggung one offspring with Singaparna, the ancestral name of Kampung Naga society.
Kampung Naga public confidence in the system to be realized on the space of trust that space or places that have certain limits controlled by certain forces anyway. Place or area that has boundaries with different categories such as boundary river, the boundary between the front yard of the house to the street, where the paddies with sewers, water began to enter or place called huluwotan, hillside areas, where the village with forest, and so on, are places inhabited by certain forces. Areas that have certain limits are inhabited delicate creatures and supposedly haunted or sanget. That is why in the area of Kampung Naga society likes to keep “sasajen” (offerings).
Kampung Naga public confidence in the future of their confidence will be realized in the so-called palintangan. At certain times there is a month or a time that is considered bad, abstinence or taboo to carry out the works which is very important as building a house, marriage, hitanan, and ceremonies. Time taboo is called prohibition months. Prohibition in the fall months Sapar and months Rhamadhan. In these months the forbidden or taboo ceremony because it coincided with the retreat ceremony. Besides determining the calculation based either on the fateful days in each month, as listed below:
Muharram (Muharram) Saturday-Sunday on 11.14
Sapar (Safar) Saturday-Sunday on 1.20
Maulud days (Rabi ‘al-Thani) Saturday-Sunday dates 1.15
Reparation Mulud (Rabi al Thani) Monday-Tuesday on 10.14
Early Jumalid (Jumada al-Awwal) Monday-Tuesday on 10.20
Jumalid End (Jumada al-Thani) Monday-Tuesday on 10.14
Rajab day (Rajab) Wednesday-Thursday date 12.13
Rewah day (Sha’ban) Wednesday-Thursday date 19.20
Fasting / Ramadan (Ramadan) Wednesday-Thursday date 9.11
Shawwal (Shawwal) Friday 10.11
Hapit (Shafar) Friday 2.12
Rayagung (Dhu al-Hijjah) Friday 6.20
In the days and dates are taboo to organize a party or wedding ceremonies, or circumcision. Marriage ceremony may be held to coincide with the day-to-day of the retreat ceremony. In addition to the calculations for determining a good day to start a job as a marriage ceremony, circumcision, build houses, etc., based on fateful days contained in each month.
Ceremony in Kampung Naga
Ceremonies were always conducted by a public ceremony Kampung Naga is solitude, Hajat Sasih ceremony and marriage ceremony.
Retreat ceremony performed by the people of Kampung Naga on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Saturday. The ceremony was in the view of Kampung Naga society is very important and must be carried out, without exception both men and women. Therefore, if there is a ceremony in accelerated time, or delay the execution. Implementation retreat ceremony handed over to each person, because it is essentially an attempt to avoid talking about everything related to customs. Seeing adherence to the rules of customary Naga people, in addition to the tribute to his ancestors as well as to maintain and will mandate that when violated feared would wreak havoc.
Hajat Sasih ceremony conducted by indigenous people around the Sa-Dragon, both residing in and outside Kampung Naga Kampung Naga. The intent and purpose of this ceremony is to invoke blessings and salvation to the ancestors Kampung Naga, grandparent Singaparna and expressed gratitude to God Almighty for all the blessings he has given to the people as His people.
Hajat Sasih ceremony was held in the months with the following dates:
Muharram (Muharram) on December 26, 27, 28
Maulud month (Rabi al-Awwal) on December 12, 13, 14
Rewah month (Sha’ban) on December 16, 17, 18
Shawwal (Shawwal) on December 14, 15, 16
Rayagung month (Dzulkaidah) on December 10, 11, 12
The selection of date and month for the ceremony Hajat Sasih deliberately coincided with the great days of Islam. Timing adjustment is intended that both can be done simultaneously, so that the provisions of customary and Islamic religious creed can be run in harmony.
This ceremony is called beberesih or susuci. Berwudlu finished their bath on the spot and then wear special clothing. Regularly they walked towards the mosque. Wash their feet before entering terlabih ago and entered into sembil nodded and held up both hands. This was done as a mark of respect and humble themselves, because the mosque is a place of worship and sacred. Then each took a broom stick that has been available there and sat holding the broom.
As Kuncen, lebe, and Punduh or village elders later berwudlu finished showering and dressed in ceremonial clothes they do not go to the mosque, but rather to Earth Ageung. On Earth this Ageung they prepare lamareun and parukuyan for later brought to the tomb. Once ready then they come out. Lebe bring lamareun and Punduh bring parukuyan to the tomb. The participants who were in the mosque exit and follow Kuncen, lebe, and Punduh one by one. They go hand in hand while each carrying a broom stick. When passing through the gates of the tomb is marked by a large stone, each participant’s head bowed in homage to the tomb of the grandparent Singaparna.
On arrival at the tomb apart Kuncen there should not be that goes into it. The Lebe and Punduh after handing lamareun and parakuyan to Kuncen then out again and join with the other participants of the ceremony. Kuncen burn incense to show fiat (ask permission) to Grandmother Singaparna. He did demonstration-performance while facing the west fence, towards the tomb. Westward means pointing towards Qibla. After Kuncen a show-show, then he invited the participants start cleaning the shrine together. After cleaning the cemetery, and the participants Kuncen sitting cross-legged around the tomb. Each silent prayer to invoke the safety, welfare, and the will of each participant. After that Kuncen Lebe invited to lead the reading of the verses of the Holy Quran and end with prayer.
Finished praying, the participants take turns shaking hands with Kuncen. They were approached by walking ngesot Kuncen. After shaking the participants out of the tomb, followed by Punduh, lebe and Kuncen. Parukuyan and sticks stored in the “ceiling” mosque. Before storing the broom washed by each participant in the ceremony Ciwulan river, while lemareun kept at Big house.
The next event was held at the mosque. After the ceremony the participants entered and sat in the mosque, and then came a woman who called patunggon while carrying water in a jug, then give it to Kuncen. Another woman came with rice cone and put it in the middle. After the woman came out, then Kuncen rinse his mouth with water jugs and burn incense. He spoke the consent granted as an opening. Furthermore lebe prayer recited after she rinsed her mouth with water first from the same jug. Prayers end with Amen speech and reading Al-Fatihah. So ended the Sasih Hajat ceremony party. After the ceremony continued with eating rice cone together. There are rice cone eaten in the mosque, some are taken home to be eaten with their families.
Marriage ceremonies for people of Kampung Naga is a ceremony performed after the completion of the marriage ceremony. As for the stages of the ceremony is as follows: Sawer ceremony, the eggs, open the door, ngariung (assembled), sit together (clustered), and ends with
Sawer ceremony performed the ceremony finished, the bridal couple brought to Saweran, right at the door. Sawer their umbrella and artisan stands in front of the bride and groom. panyawer express consent granted, followed by reciting poetry Sawer. when reciting poetry Sawer, penyawer menyelinginya by sprinkling rice, sliced turmeric, and coins in the direction of the bride. The children were huddled in the back of the bride picks up fight over money Sawer. Sawer lyric content advisory for newlyweds couple.
After the ceremony continued with the ceremony Sawer trampling eggs. endog (eggs) stored on the wooden floor and the groom stepped on. Then the bride wash the groom’s feet with water jugs. After the bride into the house, while the groom stood at the door to carry out the ceremony to open the door. In the opening ceremony occurred door debriefing between the bride and groom are represented by their respective companions chanted manner. As a bridegroom opening salutation ‘Assalammu’alaikum Wr. Wb. ‘ which is answered by the bride ‘Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. ‘ after the questioning was finished door opened and finished the ceremony to open the door.
After the ceremony held open the door, followed by a ceremonial sitting together. Third last rites exist only in Kampung Naga society. Riungan ceremony is a ceremony that was attended only by the bride and groom parents, close relatives, elders, and Kuncen. As for the bride and groom sit opposite, after all participants are present, which will be used mattresses placed in front of the bride Kuncen. Kuncen words followed by opening prayers while burning incense. Mattress later adopted by some people in just above the smoke of incense.
After the event continued with Munjungan. sungkem the bride and groom bow to their parents, elders, close relatives, and Kuncen.
Finally finished the series on a marriage ceremony. As an expression of gratitude to the invitation, the host of distributing food to them. Each get boboko (basket) containing rice with side dishes and rigen containing opaque, wajit, rengginang, and bananas.
A few days after the wedding, the bride and groom mandatory visit to his brothers, both of the men and women of the party. That is to express gratitude for their help during the past weddings. Usually while visiting the bride carrying rice with side dishes. After a social time, when the bride and groom say goodbye to home, then visited the family give gifts like appliances for household use them.